VACCINES AND ITS TYPES
What are Vaccines?
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity of a person and prepares it to fight for a particular disease. When a person is inoculated with the vaccines, the immune system initiates the primary response of the body against these harmless versions of the germs.
Ways to develop the Vaccine:
There are three main approaches to develop a vaccine:
By using whole pathogens such as viruses or bacteria.
By using just a part of the virus/ bacteria.
By using the genetic material of the causing pathogen, they provide the instructions for making specific proteins.
WHOLE MICROBE APPROACH:
This technique involves use of either dead or inactive causing organisms. They are inactivated using chemicals, heat or chemicals.
However, they take more time to produce their results and need two/ three doses of the vaccines.
Example: Polio virus
Live- attenuated vaccine:
This technique involves the use of a living or weakened version of virus or bacteria.
Examples: measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the chickenpox.