ISRAEL-PALESTINE CONFLICT AND INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY OF ISRAEL-PALESTINE.
ISRAEL- PALESTINE CONFLICT
Palestine refers to a piece of territory between mediterranean sea and the Jordan river. It is considered as a land of Palestinians.
History of Palestine:
Since ancient times it has been ruled by Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Fatimids, Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Egyptians and Mamelukes.
From 1517 to 1917, the Ottoman Empire ruled this palestinean territory.
Post world war I i.e. 1918, Britain took over the control of palestinean territory.
British foreign secretary released BALFOUR DECLARATION, seeking the support of the allies post world war I in creation of Jewish homeland in the palestine.
The League of Nations gave a mandate to Britain, it gave administrative control over Palestine to Britain and establishing jewish homeland in Palestine.
Jewish immigration to Palestine
In the late 19th century, Zionism was on the rise and Palestine witnessed jewish immigration waves.
Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, in 1933 and in 1935 the Nuremberg Laws made German Jews as stateless refugees.
This led to persecution of the jews during world war II and finally the holocast took place, which in turn increased the jewish outward migration from Europe to Palestine.
The tension increased when the limits on jewish migration was placed in palestine.
After World War II, Britain found itself in intense conflict with the Jewish community over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over the levels of limits imposed.
Partition of palestine and establishment of Israel:
In 1947, the United Nations proposed a plan to partition palestine into two sections.
an independent Jewish state
an independent Arab state
And Jerusalem, a common capital as a territory with special status.
Though the plan was accepted by the Jews, it was opposed by Palestinean Arabs.
In 1948, British withdrew itself from Palestine and Israel declared itself an Independent state.
Post this announcement Armies of 5 arab nations ie. Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Lebanon get into a war with Israel.
As an outcome of this, by the end of 1949, more than two-thirds of the former British Mandate was acquired by Israel, while Jordan took control of the West Bank, Egypt and the Gaza Strip.
In 1964, Palestine Liberation organisation was set up for the purpose of establishing a Palestinian Arab state on the land previously administered under the British Mandate.
On june 5, 1967, Israel attacked Egypt, later on joined by Syria and Jordan. This is known as SIX -DAY WAR. It leads to major land gains for Israel:
the West Bank,
the Sinai Peninsula (a desert region situated between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea)
the Golan Heights (a rocky plateau located between Syria and modern-day Israel).
In 1990: Oslo accord I was signed: allowed for interim government set up in areas of Gaza and West bank
In 1995: Oslo Accord II was signed: allowed for withdrawal of Israel from West bank and other areas.
source of the image: skillsphere
In 1956, Egypt nationalised Suez canal, it was retook by Israel with the help of british and fresh people.
YOM KIPPUR WAR:
In 1973, Egypt and Syria Conducted Air strikes on Israel. Syria was hoping to recapture Golan heights, but was unsuccessful.
In 1981, Israel annexed golan heights and is still disputed between Syria and Israel.
FIRST LEBANON WAR:
In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon and ejected PLO.
FIRST PALESTINIAN INTIFADA:
Israel occupation of Gaza strip and west bank, led to 1987 palestine uprising.
Peace was established by Oslo accords.
SECOND PALESTINE INTIFADA:
In 2000, second Palestinian Intifada began.
Reason: visit of Israel leader Ariel Sharon visit to Muslim holy site “Al-Asqa Mousque” in Jeruselum.
Riots, bombing etc took place and clashes went on for five years.
In 2004, Yaseer Arafat, leader of PLO died.
In 2005, Israel army withdrew from GAZA.
Hamas was a militant group which came to power in Palestine in 2006.
It went into a fight with another political group named FATAH, which controlled PLO.
In 2007, Hamas defeated fatah. And after its several war with Israel in 2014, Hamas and Fatah formed a united front.
Where Israel doesn’t recognise Palestine as a separate Nation, more than 130 countries in the UN do.
In 2017, the United States urged Israel for a peace process. , and in 2018 relocated its embassy from tel- Aviv to Jerusalem, which is seen as a sign of American effort to establish Jerusalem as a capital of Israel.
INDIAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS ISRAEL AND PALESTINE:
Traditionally, India’s foreign policy towards Israel and Palestine has been a hyphenated foreign policy.
In 1947, India voted against partitioning of Palestine Plan as it was officially against creation of Israel (on religious lines) and India had voted against partitioning of Palestine Plan of 1947.
Also in 1949, India had also voted against Israel’s admission to the United Nation.
Also being a part of the NAM, India heisted to establish full fledged relations with Israel.
However, in 1992, Full fledged diplomatic relations were established between India and Israel.
In 2017, in an unprecedented move, India changed its policy to de-hyphenated as PM of India visited only Israel and not Palestine.