India will launch National Hydrogen Energy Mission (NHEM) and will then become one of the 15 countries in the hydrogen club.
Global target: To produce 1.45 million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2023.
India and Hydrogen:
Consumption: India consumes nearly 5.5 million tonnes of hydrogen which is primarily produced from imported fossil fuels.
Demand for green hydrogen: As per the analysis by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW), it can go upto 1 million tonnes in 2030.
Application of Green hydrogen:
It is used in sectors such as Ammonia, steel, methanol, transport and energy storage.
There are various challenges in the path of achieving the target. Certain steps that can be taken up are enlisted below:
Decentralised hydrogen production:
There is a need to ensure open access of renewable power to an electrolyser. Electrolysis is used to split water to form hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2).
In the present scenario Renewable energy resources far from demand centres, however the transportation of hydrogen will not be economically viable.
Ensure constant supply of renewable power for hydrogen production:
We need constant supply to minimize the lag associated with renewable energy.
There is also a need for storage facilities for storing the hydrogen to ensure continuous supply of hydrogen.
To achieve the target of 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030, aligning hydrogen production needs with broader electricity demand in the economy would be crucial.
Improve reliability of hydrogen supply:
India should further take steps to blend green hydrogen with the conventional one, in various sectors in order to improve the economics of fuel.
Facilitation of Investments:
Funding is a crucial aspect in the early stages of the research and development and for advancement of technology
Public funding should lead followed by private funding as well.
Focus on domestic manufacturing:
Learning from its experiences from the development of solar energy, in which India had to depend on imports. India must focus on developing end-to-end electrolyser manufacturing facilities.
India needs to secure supplies of raw materials that are needed for the development of the technology in India.
Major institutions like the DRDO, BARC and CSIR laboratories have also been developing electrolyser and fuel-cell technologies in India.