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29th June 2021

29th June 202: List

Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF)

Paramilitary Forces in India

Before 2011, Central Armed Police Forces were earlier known as Paramilitary Forces and after 2011, the Ministry of Home Affairs the terminology of Central Armed Police Forces.

Overall there are seven central armed police forces, with a separate and unique mandate. They function under the Ministry of Home affairs. Each of the forces is led by an IPS officer with the notable exception of the Assam Rifles which is headed by an Army officer of the rank of Lieutenant General.

Definition of Paramilitary forces:

  • The term “paramilitary forces” has not been defined in any of the laws of parliament.

  • Since 2011, the Government of India has used an unofficial definition for the paramilitary forces.

  •  They are defined as the ones which assist the military forces and are headed by Military officers, not by IPS officers.

List of Seven Central Armed police forces:

  1. Assam Rifles

  2. Border Security Force (BSF)

  3. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

  4. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

  5. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBF)

  6. National Security Guard (NSG)

  7. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

Assam Rifles 

  • They were established in 1835.

  • It is considered as the oldest paramilitary force and one of the seven Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF).

  • It plays a crucial role in handling counterinsurgency and border security operations in  North East India.

  • They have also been guarding the Indo-Myanmar border since 2002.

  • Assam rifles is the only paramilitary force which has a dual control structure.

    • This paramilitary force is headed by an Army officer of the rank of Lieutenant General and reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

    • Administration control of Assam Rifles  lies with MHA and operational control lies with the Ministry of Defence.

  • They are also referred to as the“Friends of the Hill People”, “Friends of the North East People” and the “Sentinels of the North East”.

Border Security Force (BSF):

  • The BSF guards the  border of the country and is also referred to as the ‘India’s First Line of Defence’.

  • It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

  • It is headed by an officer from the Indian Police Service.

  • It came into existence in the wake of the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war on 1st December 1965.

  • Mandate:

    • To ensure the security of the borders of India.

    • It further undertakes defensive actions during wartime and thus the Indian Army remains free to take up offensive operations.

    • Lately, the BSF is also assisting the CRPF and army in counter-insurgency operations.

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) 

  • It was established in 1969, under an Act of Parliament namely Central Industrial Security Force Act, 1968.

  • Mandate:

    • CISF provides integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings, airports and SEZs on a case to case basis.

    • At present CISF provides security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings, heritage monuments and large special economic zones.

    • To provide protection to the persons classified as Z Plus, Z, X, Y.

  • CISF is the only paramilitary force with a customized and dedicated fire wing.

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

  • It was established under the CRPF Act in 1949.

  •  In 1939, it came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police to ensure internal security.

  • Mandate:

    • To undertake counter-insurgency operations.

    • It aids the State and Union Territories in police operations to maintain law and order.

    • It participates as a police force in the UN peace-keeping missions.

  • The force also maintains a special operation unit known as Commando Battalion for Resolute Action(COBRA) to combat Maoist insurgents.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP):

  • It was established in the aftermath of SIno-Indian Conflict on 24th October 1962.

  • It was also created  under the CRPF Act.

  • Mandate:

    • To guard the Indo-Tibetan border and the mountainous regions of the India-China border and also monitor the northern borders.

    • It replaced the Assam Rifles in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in 2004. 

    • It covers the India-China border from the Karakoram pass in Jammu & Kashmir to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh i.e. the state of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

    • It further detects and prevents border violations.

    • It keeps a check on illegal immigration and trans-border smuggling.

  • It has also been deployed in UN peacekeeping missions in various countries such as Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Haiti, Western Sahara, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Afghanistan and Sudan.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

  • It  was set up in March 1963.

  • Mandate:

    • To guard Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan Borders.

    • These forces are also deployed during elections as polling booth security.

    • To act against smuggling and other illegal activities

  • Earlier, it was known as the Special Service Bureau. They are also deployed to control anti-national activities and inculcate feelings of national belonging in the border population among others. 

29th June 202: Text
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