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2 May 2023

Mpox (monkeypox)


News: In a landmark achievement Scientists recently deciphered the structure of the protein methyltransferase from the monkeypox virus. With the use of methyltransferase, the protein virus escapes human immunity and causes monkeypox disease.

About Mpox (monkeypox):

  • It is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus.

  • In 1970, the first human case of mpox was recorded Congo (DRC).

  • There are two known types or clades of mpox virus 

    • 1: originated in Central Africa (Clade I)

    • 2: originated in West Africa (Clade II). 

  • Symptoms: 

    • A skin rash or mucosal lesions can last 2–4 weeks.

    • fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, low energy, and swollen lymph nodes.

  • Transmission: 

    • Human-to-human transmission: Through Direct contact with body fluids, lesions, and prolonged face-to-face contact, including sexual contact.

    • Indirect: contact with contaminated clothing or bedding. 

  • Treatment: 

    • There are no specific treatments for monkeypox virus infection. 

    • Early and supportive care is important to help manage symptoms and avoid further problems.

What are Zoonotic diseases?

  • These are infections that are spread between people and animals.

  • These infections are caused by germs, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi.

  • Some can be severe and life-threatening, such as rabies, and others may be milder and get better on their own.


ASEAN-India maritime exercise (AIME-2023)


News: First ASEAN-India maritime exercise (AIME-2023) will begin today.

About AIME-2023

  • AIME-2023 is the first time India has been involved in exercises with the ASEAN though there have been exercises with ASEAN nations separately.

  • Aim: To Enhance interoperability and exchange of best practices among participating navies.

  • With AIME-2023, India becomes the 4th ASEAN dialogue partner, after Russia, China and the US, to hold the ASEAN+1 maritime exercise.

  • Exercise will be conducted off the coast of Singapore and will feature harbour and at-sea events off the coast of Singapore.

  • Two major Indian Navy warship

    •  the INS Delhi, an indigenously built destroyer,

    • INS Satpura, a Shivalik-class, recently built modern stealth frigate are part of the exercise.


Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN):

  • It is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries.

  • It was established in 1967 with the signing of the Bangkok declaration.

  • Aim: To promote intergovernmental cooperation and facilitate economic, political, security, military, educational, and socio-cultural integration among its members and other Asian states.

  • Members: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.



Windfall Tax

It is a higher tax levied by the government on specific industries when they experience unexpected and above-average profits.

  • When is it imposed?

    • It is imposed when government notices a sudden increase in an industry's revenue, they impose this tax.

    • However, these revenues cannot be linked to anything the company actively pursued, such as its business strategy or expansion.

    • Consequently, a Windfall Tax is imposed on an industry's profits when it experiences a sharp increase in revenue due to unrelated external events.

  • Rationale behind the imposition of windfall tax:

    • Redistribution of unexpected gains, when high prices benefit producers at the expense of consumers;

    • To fund social welfare schemes;

    • As a supplementary revenue stream for the government;

    • As a way for the Government to narrow the country’s widened trade deficit

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